全球农业一周资讯-XXV

来源:By Eric Zhang     2022-12-26 15:38:28

全球农业一周资讯

1. 美国农业部投资950万美元从农产品中开发新的生物产品

12月20日,美国农业部宣布投资950万美元,支持扩大可持续生物产品制造。美国农业部国家食品和农业研究所的生物产品试验计划资助了三个成功的项目,该计划资助农产品增值产品的研发,农业资源将以可持续的方式收获、消耗和再生。


2. 加拿大奶农将获得4.68亿元的第四轮补偿

12月20日,加拿大农业部长宣布,为抵消《加拿大-欧盟全面经济贸易协定》和《跨太平洋伙伴关系全面和进步协定》的影响,奶农将根据其牛奶配额获得乳制品直接支付计划下的第四轮补偿,例如80头奶牛规模的农场主将获得3.8万加元,总额高达4.68亿加元。


3. 德国《兽药法》修正案将于2013年1月1日生效

据德国农业部报道,德国联邦委员会批准了修订《兽药法》的法案,目的是永久减少农业作物中抗生素的活性成分的使用。修正案涵盖的要点包括明确了抗生素削减50%的目标,适用动物还将包括处育肥用动物外的奶牛、小牛、蛋鸡、哺乳母猪等。


4. 丹麦议会通过了关于丹麦农业的决定性立法提案

12月22日,丹麦议会通过了一项旨在促进丹麦农业绿色转型的法案,同时确保丹麦农民从2023年1月1日起遵守欧盟规则,以确保获得欧盟农业补贴支持。该法案决定,到2030年丹麦农业将减少55-65%的温室气体排放,以期继续作为欧洲绿色农业领先国家。


5. 印度修订化肥公司的天然气采购规则以降低成本

12月22日,据路透社报道,印度已修改了化肥公司的天然气采购政策,允许他们通过国内现货市场购买每月需求的约五分之一,以帮助政府削减补贴账单,并使农民免受化肥价格上涨影响,遏制通货膨胀。据悉,印度每年需要5000万吨化肥,其中40%来自进口。


6. 我国研究人员实现通过智能农药纳米递送系统以高效防治多靶标害虫

中国农业科学院研究团队通过纳米载体的精细结构调控,实现了农药活性成分的智能响应释放和多靶标害虫的低剂量高效防治,揭示了纳米载体对药物稳定和功效提升的作用机制,为多种虫害的绿色、高效防控提供新思路。


7. 我国科学家揭示水稻籽粒必需氨基酸积累的调控机制

我国研究人员利用全基因组关联分析鉴定到控制水稻籽粒多种EAA积累的关键基因OsAUX5,揭示了OsWRKY78-OsAUX5调控水稻籽粒EAA积累的分子机制,为水稻营养品质改良提供了重要基因资源。


8. 德国研究人员发现高温提升拟南芥单倍体诱导效率

德国植物遗传和作物研究所Inna Lermontova课题组研究鉴定了在高温条件下能提升拟南芥单倍体诱导效率的新基因。这为其它作物单倍体育种提供了潜在的新的靶标基因,为作物单倍体育种提供了新的策略。


9. 中国农业大学/湖南杂交水稻研究中心合作揭示水稻杂种优势核心机制

中国农业大学和湖南杂交水稻研究中心研究人员合作解析了水稻杂种优势的遗传基础,并提出杂种优势发生的核心机制-不充分背景下纯合子功能不足模型(HoIIB)。该模型能够解释大多数已知的杂种优势假说和现象,为水稻遗传改良和杂交育种提供了新的理论支持。


10. 捷克研究人员综述指出将生物废弃物饲养的昆虫应用于鱼类养殖业可大大提高其竞争优势破

捷克研究人员综述指出昆虫有利于集约化水产养殖(IFA)实践的关键方面,改进昆虫饲料可以提高鱼类中重要营养物质的水平,其中黑水虻幼虫(BSFL)多方面占据优势。研究强调通过降低生产成本和改善公众舆论现状,使IFA符合循环经济原则,将提高集约化水产养殖的竞争力


11. 美国11月牛的饲养量下降,牲畜期货指数上涨

因为11月牛场放牧量将下降,芝加哥商品交易所(CME Group)活牛期货周五坚挺。11月的饲养场数量比一年前下降了2%。在连续三个月的配售量下降,目前正在发展一个第二季度和第三季度供应更加紧张。


12. 美国贸易谈判代表和农业部食品安全负责人已确认

参议院于周四通过了口头表决,批准提名道格·麦卡利普(Doug McCalip)担任美国贸易代表办公室首席农业谈判代表,何塞·埃斯特班(Jose Esteban)担任农业部负责食品安全的副部长。麦卡利普表示,“我有责任打破美国食品和农产品出口的壁垒”,并敦促美国贸易伙伴遵守现有协议。

Weekly News of Global Agriculture

1. USDA Invests $9.5M to Develop New Bioproducts from Agricultural Commodities

On Dec 20, the U.S. Department of Agriculture announced an investment of $9.5 million to support the scale-up of sustainable bioproduct manufacturing in the United States. Three successful projects are funded through USDA’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture’s (NIFA) Bioproduct Pilot Program, which funds research and development of value-added products from agricultural commodities, agricultural resources are harvested, consumed, and regenerated in a sustainable manner.


2. Canadian dairy farmers will receive $468 million in the fourth round of compensation

On December 20, the Canadian Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food announced that, in order to offset the impact of the Canada-European Union Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), dairy farmers would receive the fourth compensation under the direct payment plan for dairy products according to their milk quotas. For example, the owner of an 80 head dairy farm will receive $38,000 in direct payment compensation. The compensation for this fourth round of payments totals up to $468 million.


3. Amendment of the GermanVeterinary Medicines Act enters into force on 01.01.2023

According to BMEL, the German Federal Council approved the bill amending the Veterinary Medicines Act to permanently reduce the use of antibiotics in agricultural holdings. The key points covered by the amendment include the 50%reduction target for antibiotics, and the applicable animals will also include dairy cows, calves, hens, suckling sows etc.


4. The Danish Parliament has adopted a decisive legislative proposal about Danish agriculture

On December 22, the Danish Parliament passed a bill aimed at promoting the green transformation of Danish agricultural agricultural, and at the same time ensuring that Danish farmers comply with the EU rules from January 1, 2023 to ensure the support of EU agricultural subsidies. The bill determines that by 2030, Danish agriculture will reduce the 75-65% greenhouse gas emissions, with a view to continuing to be the leading country of green agriculture in Europe.


5. India revises gas procurement rules for fertiliser firms to cut costs

On December 22, according to Reuters, India has revised the gas procurement policy for fertiliser companies, allowing them to buy about a fifth of their monthly needs through the domestic spot market to help the government cut its subsidy bill, insulate farmers from high prices and contain inflation. It is reported that India imports up to 40% of the 50 million tonnes of fertilizer it needs annually.


6. Temperature-Dependent Nanogel for Pesticide Smart Delivery with Improved Foliar Dispersion and Bioactivity for Efficient Control of Multiple Pests

Chinese researchers successfully constructed a series of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)-based nanogels with high deformability and tunable structure for smart pesticide delivery and effective pest control. This research provides an insight into creating an efficient and environmentally friendly pesticide nanoformulation for sustainable agriculture production.


7. Natural variations of OsAUX5, a target gene of OsWRKY78, control the contents of neutral essential amino acids in rice grains

Chinese researchers report the identification of a previously unrecognized auxin influx carrier subfamily gene, OsAUX5, which encodes an amino acid transporter that functions in the uptake of multiple amino acids. This study uncovers a WRKY78–OsAUX5-based regulatory mechanism controlling grain EAAs accumulation and provides a potential target for designing EAAs-rich rice.


8. High temperature increases centromere-mediated genome elimination frequency and enhances haploid induction in Arabidopsis

German researchers identified Kinetochore Null2 (KNL2) can be used as a haploid inducer. Short temperature stress of the knl2 mutant increased the efficiency of haploid induction. This study identified KNL2 as a new target gene for the generation of haploid inducer lines and showed that exposure of mutants of centromeric proteins to high temperature strongly increases their haploid induction efficiency.


9. Large-scale genomic and transcriptomic profiles of rice hybrids reveal a core mechanism underlying heterosis

Chinese researchers find that nonadditive QTLs are the main genetic contributors to heterosis. Further simulations and experimental analysis support a novel mechanism, homo-insufficiency under insufficient background (HoIIB). This model can explain most known hypotheses and phenomena about heterosis, and thus provides a novel theory for hybrid rice breeding in future.


10. Insect rearing on biowaste represents a competitive advantage for fish farming

Czech researchers conducted a review to identify the key aspects of insect incorporation into established intensively-fed-aquaculture (IFA) practices and put them into a commercial context. Larvae of Black soldier fly is identified as the most versatile. Bringing the IFA into compliance with the principles of the circular economy increases its competitiveness by reducing production costs and improving public opinion.


11. LIVESTOCK-CME LIVE CATTLE FUTURES CLIMB; NOVEMBER CATTLE PLACEMENTS DROP

The USDA reported feedlot placements in November fell 2% from a year ago. Analysts predicted a 4.2% drop in a Reuters poll of analysts."That wasn't as bullish as the trade wanted to see, so we may have a small step down on Tuesday off the open," said Rich Nelson, chief strategist at Allendale Inc. "We now have three months in a row of lower placements and are now developing a story of much tighter supply in Q2 and Q3."


12. SENATE CONFIRMS U.S. AG NEGOTIATOR AND USDA FOOD SAFETY CHIEF

In some of its final actions of the year, the Senate approved by voice vote on Thursday the nominations of Doug McKalip as chief agricultural negotiator at the U.S. trade representative’s office and Jose Esteban as Agriculture undersecretary for food safety. Senate Agriculture chair Debbie Stabenow said confirmation of the nominees, who waited three months for a floor vote, was long overdue.


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