全球农业一周资讯-XVI

来源:By Eric Zhang     2022-10-25 10:02:35

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全球农业一周资讯


1. 德国政府内阁通过畜牧标签法草案

10月12日,德国联邦政府内阁通过了畜牧业标签法草案,旨在让消费者一眼就能看到在德国食用动物是怎样饲养的,包括圈养、圈养+放养、室外散养、有机养殖等,同时其它欧盟国家的产品也可以自愿进行标记。


2. 加拿大政府投资于粮食研究支持疾病预防

10月6日,加拿大农业部长宣布向草原燕麦种植者协会提供10.6万加元,用于开展燕麦在预防疾病中的作用研究,曼尼托巴省正在与协会合作,用燕麦进行动物喂养试验,以确定如何消化燕麦蛋白以及对降低胆固醇和血糖水平的影响。


3. 美国农业部发布监管框架以减少家禽产品沙门氏菌感染

10月14日,美国农业部食品安全和检验局发布了一个拟议的监管框架,旨在控制家禽产品中的沙门氏菌污染及由此引发的食源性疾病,主要包括对活禽进入屠宰厂前进行沙门氏菌检测、增强工厂各环节监控并实施可强制执行的最终产品标准。


4. 新西兰提议2025年起对牲畜排放征税

10月11日,新西兰政府确认了对主要来自牛和羊的气体和生物氨气进行定价,该计划将于2025年推出,新西兰将成为第一个让农民支付牲畜排放费用的国家。该提议受到农业团体的批评,正在进行咨询,需转为法律后才正式生效。


5. 苏格兰农业政策的发展

10月13日,英国农业与园艺委员会报道,当前苏格兰农业政策旨在促进再生和可持续农业,并与欧盟2025年政策密切一致,目标包括保障农民公平收入,针对气候变化和生物多样性丧失采取行动,生产高质量的食品,促进创新和知识。


6. 荷兰政府内阁提出解决氮问题的计划

10月14日,荷兰农业部长宣布,政府内阁将采纳由前内政部长约翰·雷姆克斯提出的许多关于如何解决氮排放问题的建议,其建议在一年内关闭500-600家对氮排放负有最大责任的组织,预计在明年第一季度达成农业政策协议。


7. 利用纳米生物技术提高作物逆境韧性以应对气候变化的新策略

南京大学赵丽娟课题组综述讨论了利用纳米生物技术提高作物逆境韧性以应对气候变化的新策略:能够引发活性氧产生的纳米酶可以通过刺激广泛的防御通路来增强植物的抗逆性、甚至抗病性。


8. 一种给猪带来痛苦相对较少的清群方法——水基膨胀泡沫法

俄亥俄州立大学科研团队,对一种新兴的养猪清群方法——水基膨胀泡沫法下猪只失去意识和脑死亡的时间进行了探索、量化。研究再次证明,该方法是一种给猪带来痛苦相对较少的清群方法。


9. 陆上微藻养殖场有望成为“南半球粮仓”

康奈尔大学研究人员发文表示,在陆上海水养殖系统中培育营养丰富、蛋白质含量高的微藻,尤其是在南半球沿海地区,有望将粮食产量提高50%以上,同时能减少温室气体排放。


10. 卡尔斯鲁厄理工学院(KIT)研究人员使用CRISPR / Cas来抑制染色体并防止遗传交换

卡尔斯鲁厄理工学院(KIT)研究人员为了确保作物阳性性状(高品质、高产量、抗病虫害等)可以一起传递,使用CRISPR / Cas分子方法来抑制染色体,使得染色体这一部分编码的特征在遗传交换中变得“不可见”,从而防止遗传交换。


11. 一种基于基因组学和基因组预测的综合的小麦改良前育种策略

德国植物遗传和作物研究所科学家研究提出了一种基于基因组学和基因组预测的综合的小麦改良前育种策略,用于评估基因库中数千个材料的育种价值,并从中检测到小麦资源库中尚未被利用的抗黄锈病抗源供体和可与优良品种杂交创造高产性状的非适应亲本。


12. 前景综述:从海洋到水产饲料

切库罗瓦大学研究人员综述了多种海洋生物作为替代饲料原料的当前形势,及其循环利用潜力和新价值链的发展。并提出将生物资源作为有价值的饲料原料进行再利用的观点,以促进新型循环经济价值链,为提高或实现可循环的水产养殖助力。


13. 农业局寻求“统一”农业和营养援助法案

美国最大的农业集团Zippy Duvall总统在周四宣布美国农业局联合会的农业法案优先事项时说,该集团认为将商品支持结合在一起,并参与同一项大额立法“非常有意义”。AFBF呼吁提高补贴率,成本仍有待确定,并更加重视对耕地的管理,而不是长期闲置耕地。


14. 分析师表示,战争和石油输出国组织(OPEC)加剧了市场波动

过去一周,乌克兰战争升级。欧佩克决定每天减产200万桶,这是疫情爆发以来最大的减产幅度。这两件事都震动了市场。原油期货上涨近10.00美元/桶。

小麦价格每蒲式耳上涨60美分。股票继续下跌,加剧了人们对能源价格上涨意味着企业利润减少的担忧。越来越多的人认为世界正在走向衰退。消息暗淡,很难找到积极的一面。最终,更大的前景可能比上周的事件更令人鼓舞。


15. 罗萨里奥交易所表示,由于干旱,阿根廷玉米种植速度六年来最慢

罗萨里奥谷物交易所(BCR)周五表示,由于长期干旱,阿根廷玉米种植正以六年来最慢的速度发展,这将拖累通常产量较高的早熟玉米种植量。


16. 鹰眼州 ( 爱荷华州 ) 提前收获

在近乎完美的条件下,爱荷华州农民上周收获的玉米和大豆面积增加了一倍多。

根据美国农业部作物进展报告,截至10月9日,爱荷华州已收获了2.3%的玉米,比五年平均水平高出4%。全州大豆收获率为55%,比平均水平高出近20%。


17. 该诉讼寻求恢复美国对黑人农民的援助

周三提交的一项集体诉讼称,尽管国会今年夏天废除了该援助计划,但政府必须兑现其2021向黑人和其他社会弱势农民提供的40亿美元贷款豁免。

向美国联邦索赔法院提起诉讼的民权律师本·克拉姆普将这种情况比作内战后黑人农民失去援助。


Weekly News of Overseas Agriculture



1. Draft of animal husbandry labeling law passed by the German cabinet

On October 12, the German Federal Government Cabinet passed the draft of the animal husbandry labeling law, which aims to allow consumers to see how to raise animals in Germany at a glance, including stable, stable+space, outdoor, organic and etc. At the same time, products in other EU countries can also be marked voluntarily.


2. Government of Canada invests in food research to support disease prevention

On October 6, the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food in Canada announced that it provided $ 106,000 to Prairie Oat Growers Association for new research trials to better understand the role oats play in disease prevention. The goal is to determine exactly how oat protein is digested and what effect it has on reducing cholesterol and blood glucose levels.


3. USDA Releases Proposed Regulatory Framework to Reduce Salmonella Infections Linked to Poultry Products

On October 14, The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) released a proposed regulatory framework for a new strategy to control Salmonella contamination in poultry products and reduce food-borne illnesses attributed to these products. The proposed framework consists of three key components, including requiring that incoming flocks be tested for Salmonella before entering an establishment; enhancing establishment process control monitoring and FSIS verification; and implementing an enforceable final product standard.


4. New Zealand proposes to levy tax on livestock emissions from 2025

On October 11, the New Zealand government confirmed plans to price agricultural long-lived gases and biogenic methane that mainly comes from cow and sheep burps separately. The plan will be launched in 2025. New Zealand will become the first country to have farmers pay for emissions from livestock. The proposal was criticized by agricultural groups, and it was being counseled, and it will be put into force after being passed into law.


5. The development of Scottish agricultural policy

On October 13, AHDB reported that the current Scottish agricultural policy aims to promote regeneration and sustainable agriculture, and is closely consistent with the European Union's 2025 policy. The goal includes the protection of fair income of farmers, taking action for climate change and loss of biodiversity, producing high-quality foods, and promoting innovation and knowledge.


6. The Dutch government cabinet proposes to solve the problem of nitrogen problems

On October 14, the Dutch Minister of Agriculture announced that the government cabinet will adopt many suggestions on how to solve the problem of nitrogen emissions by former Interior Minister Johan Remkes. He had advised shutting down the 500 to 600 organizations responsible for the most nitrogen emissions within a year. It is expected to conclude agriculture policy agreements in the first quarter of next year.


7. Nanobiotechnology-based Strategies for Enhanced Crop Stress Resilience

Chinese researchers reviewed the current state of knowledge of using ROS-scavenging nanomaterials to enhance plant stress tolerance. They find that ROS-triggering nanomaterials have the potential to be judiciously applied to crop species to stimulate the defence system, prime stress responses and subsequently increase the stress resistance of crops.


8. Description of electroencephalographic data gathered using water-based medium-expansion foam as a depopulation method for nursery pigs

Researchers from the Ohio State University used water-based medium-expansion foam to quantify the time to induce loss of consciousness and ultimately brain death. The relatively rapid loss of consciousness compared to other methods limits the amount of distress and is overall a positive finding for the welfare of the pigs that might be depopulated with water-based foam.


9. Transforming the Future of Marine Aquaculture: A Circular Economy Approach

Researchers from Cornell University reported that Growing nutritious, protein-dense microalgae in onshore, seawater-fed aquaculture systems -- particularly along the coasts of the Global South -- could help increase food production by more than 50% and feed a projected 10 billion people by 2050.

10. Massive crossover suppression by CRISPR-Cas-mediated plant chromosome engineering

To ensure that positive traits(tasty, high-yielding, disease and pest resistance)can be passed on together, researchers from Karlsruher Institut für Technologie have used CRISPR/Cas molecular scissors to invert and thus genetically deactivate nine-tenths of a chromosome. The traits coded for on this part of the chromosome become 'invisible' for genetic exchange and can thus be passed on unchanged.


11. Genomics-informed prebreeding unlocks the diversity in genebanks for wheat improvement

Scientists from Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research implemented a genomics-informed prebreeding strategy for wheat improvement. They collected and analyzed dense genetic profiles for a large winter wheat collection and evaluate grain yield and resistance to yellow rust in bespoke core sets. Genomic prediction within and across genebanks identified the best parents to be used in crosses with elite cultivars whose advanced progenies can outyield current wheat varieties in multiple field trials.


12. From the sea to aquafeed: A perspective overview

Researchers from Cukurova University assess the current trends in using various marine organisms to macroalgae and macroinvertebrates as viable biological feed resources, and focuses on the trend of circular use of resources and the development of new value chains. They present a perspective of promoting novel circular economy value chains that promote the re-use of biological resources as valuable feed ingredients.


13. FARM BUREAU SEEKS ‘UNIFIED’ FARM BILL OF AGRICULTURE AND NUTRITION AID

The largest U.S. farm group believes “it makes perfect sense” to combine commodity supports and SNAP in the same piece of big-ticket legislation, said president Zippy Duvall in announcing the American Farm Bureau Federation’s farm bill priorities on Thursday. The AFBF called for higher subsidy rates, at a still-to-be-determined cost, and more emphasis on stewardship on working lands rather than long-term idling of cropland.


14. WAR AND OPEC CREATING MORE MARKET VOLATILITY, ANALYST SAYS

The war in Ukraine has escalated this past week. OPEC has decided to decrease production by two million barrels per day, the largest cut since the start of the pandemic. Both events shook the marketplace. Crude oil futures added nearly $10.00 per barrel.

Wheat prices jumped 60¢ per bushel. Equities continued their downward path, increasing the concerns that higher energy prices will mean less profits for corporations. There is a growing view that the world is headed toward a recession. The news is bleak, and it is hard to find positives. Ultimately, the bigger picture could look more encouraging than this past week’s events.


15. ARGENTINA CORN PLANTING SLOWEST IN SIX YEARS DUE TO DROUGHT, ROSARIO EXCHANGE SAYS

Argentina corn planting is progressing at its slowest pace in six years due to a protracted drought, the Rosario grains exchange (BCR) said on Friday, which will drag down the amount of early-planted corn that normally has a higher yield.


16. HAWKEYE STATE HARVEST AHEAD OF SCHEDULE

With nearly perfect conditions, Iowa farmers more than doubled the harvested acres of corn and soybeans last week.

According the the USDA Crop Progress Report, as of Oct. 9. 23% of Iowa corn has been harvested, ahead of the five-year average by 4%. Soybean harvest is 55% complete statewide, nearly 20% above average. 


17. LAWSUIT SEEKS TO RESTORE U.S. AID FOR BLACK FARMERS

The government must honor its 2021 offer of $4 billion in loan forgiveness to Black and other socially disadvantaged farmers, even though Congress repealed the aid program this summer, said a class action lawsuit filed on Wednesday.

Civil rights attorney Ben Crump, who filed suit in the U.S. Court of Federal Claims, likened the situation to the loss of assistance to Black farmers after the Civil War.



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